Job Analysis

A job analysis is a study of a position that includes the activities, responsibilities, and talents required to do the work. It provides the information you need to write an accurate job description and hire the appropriate person. Here’s why job analyses are crucial, as well as how to go about doing them.

Job analysis is crucial in any business as it allows managers to break down a job into its component parts. This way, they can determine what activities are included in the role, how important each task is, and what qualifications are necessary for someone to succeed in the position.

It’s essential to remember that when conducting a job analysis, you’re assessing the role itself - not necessarily the person currently filling it. Although some data may be gathered from incumbents during this process, Human Resources shouldn’t base their entire evaluation on this information alone.

One of the most common mistakes new business owners make is forgetting to write a job analysis before hiring an employee. When they’re in a rush to fill vacancies or newly-created positions, employers often go for generic job titles and descriptions rather than taking the time to think about what specific tasks the new hire will need to be able to do, or what skillsets are required for success in that role.

This is a common mistake. It may result in you hiring the wrong individual. Bad hires are costly, time-consuming, and stressful to deal with. They’re also rather frequent, according to a CareerBuilder poll. By conducting a job analysis, you can improve your chances of finding the appropriate job applicant whether you’re staffing your first employee or tenth.

What is Job Analysis?

An analysis of a position is referred to as job analysis. It covers the requirements for performing the work, including activities, responsibilities, and talents needed. Managers use job analysis to figure out what tasks are included in the role, how critical each activity is, and whether or not specific skills are required for someone to do the work.

When conducting a job analysis, you are determining the requirements of the role itself - not evaluating the person currently filling it.

By analyzing a job and its parts, businesses can determine the specific activities involved in the role, how important each task is, and what qualifications are necessary for someone to be successful in the position.

Job analyses should take into consideration the perspectives of past and present employees.

Why is Job Analysis important?

Job analysis is important because it allows businesses to assess and understand a job role in detail. This information is necessary to create an accurate job description, identify the qualifications required for the job, and determine what tasks are included in the role.

Job analysis also helps businesses to better understand what skill sets are necessary for someone to be successful in a particular role. When businesses staff new employees, conducting a job analysis can improve their chances of finding the right individual for the job.

Following are the HR Management areas where outcomes of Job Analysis are used as inputs:

Strategic Workforce Planning

The assessment of job needs is a qualitative aspect of manpower requirements since it determines the requirements for skills, qualities, and other human characteristics. This helps to split labor into various occupations.

Recruitment and Staffing

To recruit effectively, Human Resources Management Function must have a deep understanding of the job itself as well as the attributes of an ideal candidate. This information comes from either the job description or person specification and allows managers to adapt the role’s requirements as closely as possible to employees' interests, skillsets, and attitudes.

Training and Development

Job analysis assists businesses in setting expectations for employee performance and helps to manage learning and development programs.

Job Evaluation

The foundation for job evaluation is a job analysis. A job appraisal’s main purpose is to determine the position’s relative worth, which aids in determining compensation levels.

Performance Appraisal

Analyzing data specific to a job role provides employers with a benchmark for employee performance. This allows managers to compare workers objectively against the pre-determined standard.

Job Designing

By analyzing the various elements of a job, industrial engineers can create a more comprehensive study which they can then use to design the job.

Safety and Health

Corrective actions may be implemented to ensure the safety of workers and to reduce the danger of workplace hazards, including exposure, falls and injuries.

Promotions

The job analysis is mostly based on successful policies. Effective measures may be taken in order to promote and transfer personnel.

Employment Guidance

The purpose of the job description is to assist aspirants in determining the position for which they have adequate ability and talents.

Labour Relations

Job analysis provides the information necessary to resolve disputes between employees and management over the expectations for job performance.

What are the benefits of Job Analysis?

The benefits of job analysis are as follows:

  • Job analysis allows businesses to assess and understand a job role in detail. This information is necessary to create an accurate job description, identify the qualifications required for the job, and determine what tasks are included in the role.
  • Job analysis also helps businesses to better understand what skill sets are necessary for someone to be successful in a particular role. When businesses staff new employees, conducting a job analysis can improve their chances of finding the right individual for the job.
  • By analyzing data specific to a job role, employers can create a more comprehensive study which they can then use to design the job.
  • Job analysis assists businesses in setting expectations for employee performance and helps to manage learning and development programs.
  • Job evaluation is based on Job Analysis results. A job appraisal’s main purpose is to determine the position’s relative worth, which aids in determining compensation levels.
  • Performance Appraisal is improved when benchmarks are set against data collected from a Job Analysis
  • Corrective actions may be implemented to ensure the safety of workers and to reduce the danger of workplace hazards, including exposure, falls and injuries.
  • The job description is used to assist aspirants in determining the position for which they have adequate ability and talents.
  • Job analysis provides the information necessary to resolve disputes between employees and management over the expectations for job performance.

Job Analysis Types

There are three types of job analysis:

  • observational,
  • self-report, and
  • judgmental.
  1. Observational job analysis involves observing people as they work and taking note of the tasks they perform, the tools they use, their interactions with others, and so on. This can be done through direct observation or video recording.
  2. Self-report job analysis relies on employees to accurately report the tasks they perform, the tools they use, their interactions with others, and so on. This can be done through surveys or interviews.
  3. Judgmental job analysis is when experts make subjective judgments about the tasks, tools, and qualifications necessary for a job. This can be done through surveys or interviews with experts in the field.

The process of job analysis includes:

  • collecting data,
  • analyzing the data,
  • writing the job description, and
  • writing the job specification.
  1. Collecting data: This step involves gathering information about the job through observation, self-report, or judgmental methods.
  2. Analyzing the data: This step involves breaking down the information collected in the previous step to identify the tasks, tools, and qualifications necessary for success in the job.
  3. Writing the job description: This step involves taking the information from the previous two steps and writing a detailed description of the job.
  4. Writing the job specification: This step involves taking the information from the previous two steps and writing a detailed list of the qualifications necessary for success in the job.

Most common use cases of Job Analysis?

Job analysis is used in many ways by businesses. It can be used to:


  • Create job descriptions
  • Screen applicants
  • Develop training programs
  • Assess employee performance
  • Evaluate compensation and benefits programs

Creating Job Descriptions

One of the most common uses for job analysis is to create an accurate job description. A well-written job description sets clear expectations for an employee and can help you find candidates with the right skills and qualifications. It can also be used as a tool for performance management, as it can help employees understand what is expected of them in their roles.

Screening Applicants

Another common use for job analysis is to screen applicants. By conducting a job analysis, you can identify the specific skills and qualifications that are necessary for success in a role. You can then use this information to create screening questions for job interviews or assessment tests. This will help you weed out candidates who are not a good fit for the role, saving you time and money in the long run.

Developing Training Programs

Another way job analysis is used is to develop training programs. By understanding the tasks that are required to be successful in a role, you can create training programs that teach employees the skills they need to know. This is especially important for new employees or those who are being promoted to a new position.

Assessing Employee Performance

In addition to being used to create job descriptions and training programs, job analysis can also be used to assess employee performance. By understanding the duties of a role, you can identify which employees are not meeting expectations. This information can then be used to provide feedback or create an improvement plan.

Evaluating Compensation and Benefits Programs

Finally, job analysis can also be used to evaluate compensation and benefits programs. By understanding the duties of a role, you can determine what level of pay is appropriate. You can also use this information to assess whether employees are receiving the correct level of benefits. This is especially important when creating or reviewing compensation and benefits programs.