8 General Human Resources Management Models and Perspectives
This is an overview of eight major Human Resources Management (HRM) models and perspectives. Each model offers a unique approach to how organizations can most effectively manage their workforce and create value for their stakeholders. Understanding these different models can help employers design and implement effective HRM strategies to attract, retain, and motivate their employees.
Human Resources Management Models (HRMs) are a vital part of any organization’s strategy, providing the foundation to effectively manage and coordinate all business activities related to people. If you’re an HR professional, you must understand the eight models discussed in this article.
Additionally, it can also help them create a work environment where employees feel empowered and engaged in the business. As such, understanding these different models is essential for organizations striving for long-term success.
- The Universalistic Model
- The Contingency Model
- The Configurational Model
- The Resource-Based View of the Firm
- Dynamic Capabilities Approach to HRM
- High Performance Human Resource Practices (HPHRP) Model
- Political Perspective of HRM
- Strategic Choice Perspective of Human Resources Management
Let’s make a deep dive into details of these eight HR Models
- The Universalistic Model: It proposes that human resource practices should be universally applicable across all organizations and should lead to improved organizational performance. This model suggests that all HRM activities, such as employee selection, training, and reward systems, should be based on measurable metrics and goals, in order to ensure the highest level of effectiveness and efficiency within the organization. Additionally, these practices should be adapted to the specific needs of each organization, as the external environment and individual organizational characteristics can have a significant impact on the potential success or failure of the HRM initiatives being implemented. Furthermore, this model also emphasizes the importance of recognizing individual differences among employees, as such differences can also factor into the effectiveness of HRM practices, and subsequently, the overall level of performance.
- The Contingency Model: This model suggests that the effectiveness of any organization’s HRM practices should be tailored to the particular needs of the organization. It emphasizes the importance of matching HRM activities with organizational objectives and suggests that organizations should adjust their HRM policies and practices to suit the organization’s needs in order to gain maximum effectiveness. It also involves an understanding of the external environment (economic, legal, competitive) and how it affects the organization’s ability to obtain resources and make decisions. The model further suggests that HRM should be integrated with the organization’s strategy and that HRM policies and practices should be adjusted by changes in the organization’s environment.
- The Configurational Model: This model proposes that the HRM system of an organization is determined by the configuration of its particular components and the way in which they interact with each other. It suggests that a firm’s HRM activities should be designed to achieve a specific configuration that is most suitable for the particular organization and its environment. The configuration may be based on the organization’s size and culture, its industry sector, the type of employment and labor relations, the technology used, and the nature of its human resources. The model also suggests that organizations should assess the outcomes of their HRM system to ensure that it is meeting the organization’s objectives.
- The Resource-Based View of the Firm: This model suggests that organizations should invest in their human resources in order to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. It emphasizes the importance of building an HRM system that is based on unique knowledge, skills, abilities, and other competencies that are directly linked to the organization’s strategic objectives. In addition, the model suggests that organizations should strive to develop a culture of openness and collaboration amongst employees in order to maximize the development of their individual and collective capabilities. By doing so, the organization can then create value by leveraging these resources in order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. The Resource-Based View of the Firm provides a framework for developing an HRM strategy.
- The Dynamic Capabilities Approach to Human Resources Management: This model suggests that organizations should focus on creating an environment in which their employees are continually evolving and learning new skills, competencies, and knowledge in order to stay ahead of the competition. It emphasizes the importance of providing employees with the necessary resources to become more competent and productive. Furthermore, it suggests that organizations should be agile and flexible enough to quickly adapt to changes in the external environment. This model also encourages organizations to focus on developing the capabilities of employees through training and development activities. Moreover, it suggests that organizations should promote a culture of learning and innovation, where employees are encouraged to be continuously improving their capabilities and competencies. Finally, this model stresses the importance of providing employees with the necessary support.
- The High Performance Human Resource Practices (HPHRP) Model suggests that organizations should create an environment where employees are empowered, motivated, and engaged in their work. This model emphasizes the importance of HRM practices such as employee development, performance management, recognition and rewards, and employee feedback. It also encourages organizations to focus on creating a culture of innovation and collaboration so that employees feel engaged and involved in their work. Additionally, the model highlights the importance of creating a work environment that is conducive to employees’ well-being, such as providing flexible working hours and a healthy work-life balance. By focusing on these areas, organizations can create an environment that is conducive to high performance and growth.
- Political Perspective of HRM: This model emphasizes the importance of understanding the power dynamics between different stakeholders in the organization. It suggests that organizations should take a proactive approach in managing the political environment within the organization in order to create a sense of balance, harmony and collaboration. To do this, HRM needs to analyze the political environment within the organization and identify potential areas of conflict that could arise. In addition, HRM needs to be proactive in creating strategies to resolve potential conflicts before they become unmanageable. This could involve creating policies and procedures that ensure fair and equitable treatment of employees, addressing potential power imbalances, and creating an organizational culture that values collaboration and mutual respect.
- The Strategic Choice Perspective of Human Resources Management (SCPHRM) is an approach that suggests organizations should take a proactive, strategic stance when designing their HRM practices. This model emphasizes the need to align HRM policies, systems and processes with the organization’s mission, goals and objectives so that HRM activities can contribute to overall value creation. By considering the current business environment, the organization’s objectives and the resources available, an organization can create an HRM system that effectively supports its objectives and allows them to remain competitive in its industry. This approach also takes into account the effects of external factors, such as labor laws, economic conditions, and technological developments, on the organization’s strategic HRM plans.